1: /*
   2:  * Copyright (c) 1982, 1986 Regents of the University of California.
   3:  * All rights reserved.  The Berkeley software License Agreement
   4:  * specifies the terms and conditions for redistribution.
   5:  *
   6:  *	@(#)fs.h	7.1 (Berkeley) 6/4/86
   7:  */
   8: 
   9: /*
  10:  * Each disk drive contains some number of file systems.
  11:  * A file system consists of a number of cylinder groups.
  12:  * Each cylinder group has inodes and data.
  13:  *
  14:  * A file system is described by its super-block, which in turn
  15:  * describes the cylinder groups.  The super-block is critical
  16:  * data and is replicated in each cylinder group to protect against
  17:  * catastrophic loss.  This is done at mkfs time and the critical
  18:  * super-block data does not change, so the copies need not be
  19:  * referenced further unless disaster strikes.
  20:  *
  21:  * For file system fs, the offsets of the various blocks of interest
  22:  * are given in the super block as:
  23:  *	[fs->fs_sblkno]		Super-block
  24:  *	[fs->fs_cblkno]		Cylinder group block
  25:  *	[fs->fs_iblkno]		Inode blocks
  26:  *	[fs->fs_dblkno]		Data blocks
  27:  * The beginning of cylinder group cg in fs, is given by
  28:  * the ``cgbase(fs, cg)'' macro.
  29:  *
  30:  * The first boot and super blocks are given in absolute disk addresses.
  31:  */
  32: #define BBSIZE      8192
  33: #define SBSIZE      8192
  34: #define BBLOCK      ((daddr_t)(0))
  35: #define SBLOCK      ((daddr_t)(BBLOCK + BBSIZE / DEV_BSIZE))
  36: 
  37: /*
  38:  * Addresses stored in inodes are capable of addressing fragments
  39:  * of `blocks'. File system blocks of at most size MAXBSIZE can
  40:  * be optionally broken into 2, 4, or 8 pieces, each of which is
  41:  * addressible; these pieces may be DEV_BSIZE, or some multiple of
  42:  * a DEV_BSIZE unit.
  43:  *
  44:  * Large files consist of exclusively large data blocks.  To avoid
  45:  * undue wasted disk space, the last data block of a small file may be
  46:  * allocated as only as many fragments of a large block as are
  47:  * necessary.  The file system format retains only a single pointer
  48:  * to such a fragment, which is a piece of a single large block that
  49:  * has been divided.  The size of such a fragment is determinable from
  50:  * information in the inode, using the ``blksize(fs, ip, lbn)'' macro.
  51:  *
  52:  * The file system records space availability at the fragment level;
  53:  * to determine block availability, aligned fragments are examined.
  54:  *
  55:  * The root inode is the root of the file system.
  56:  * Inode 0 can't be used for normal purposes and
  57:  * historically bad blocks were linked to inode 1,
  58:  * thus the root inode is 2. (inode 1 is no longer used for
  59:  * this purpose, however numerous dump tapes make this
  60:  * assumption, so we are stuck with it)
  61:  * The lost+found directory is given the next available
  62:  * inode when it is created by ``mkfs''.
  63:  */
  64: #define ROOTINO     ((ino_t)2)  /* i number of all roots */
  65: #define LOSTFOUNDINO    (ROOTINO + 1)
  66: 
  67: /*
  68:  * Cylinder group related limits.
  69:  *
  70:  * For each cylinder we keep track of the availability of blocks at different
  71:  * rotational positions, so that we can lay out the data to be picked
  72:  * up with minimum rotational latency.  NRPOS is the number of rotational
  73:  * positions which we distinguish.  With NRPOS 8 the resolution of our
  74:  * summary information is 2ms for a typical 3600 rpm drive.
  75:  */
  76: #define NRPOS       8   /* number distinct rotational positions */
  77: 
  78: /*
  79:  * MAXIPG bounds the number of inodes per cylinder group, and
  80:  * is needed only to keep the structure simpler by having the
  81:  * only a single variable size element (the free bit map).
  82:  *
  83:  * N.B.: MAXIPG must be a multiple of INOPB(fs).
  84:  */
  85: #define MAXIPG      2048    /* max number inodes/cyl group */
  86: 
  87: /*
  88:  * MINBSIZE is the smallest allowable block size.
  89:  * In order to insure that it is possible to create files of size
  90:  * 2^32 with only two levels of indirection, MINBSIZE is set to 4096.
  91:  * MINBSIZE must be big enough to hold a cylinder group block,
  92:  * thus changes to (struct cg) must keep its size within MINBSIZE.
  93:  * MAXCPG is limited only to dimension an array in (struct cg);
  94:  * it can be made larger as long as that structures size remains
  95:  * within the bounds dictated by MINBSIZE.
  96:  * Note that super blocks are always of size SBSIZE,
  97:  * and that both SBSIZE and MAXBSIZE must be >= MINBSIZE.
  98:  */
  99: #define MINBSIZE    4096
 100: #define MAXCPG      32  /* maximum fs_cpg */
 101: 
 102: /*
 103:  * The path name on which the file system is mounted is maintained
 104:  * in fs_fsmnt. MAXMNTLEN defines the amount of space allocated in
 105:  * the super block for this name.
 106:  * The limit on the amount of summary information per file system
 107:  * is defined by MAXCSBUFS. It is currently parameterized for a
 108:  * maximum of two million cylinders.
 109:  */
 110: #define MAXMNTLEN 512
 111: #define MAXCSBUFS 32
 112: 
 113: /*
 114:  * Per cylinder group information; summarized in blocks allocated
 115:  * from first cylinder group data blocks.  These blocks have to be
 116:  * read in from fs_csaddr (size fs_cssize) in addition to the
 117:  * super block.
 118:  *
 119:  * N.B. sizeof(struct csum) must be a power of two in order for
 120:  * the ``fs_cs'' macro to work (see below).
 121:  */
 122: struct csum {
 123:     long    cs_ndir;    /* number of directories */
 124:     long    cs_nbfree;  /* number of free blocks */
 125:     long    cs_nifree;  /* number of free inodes */
 126:     long    cs_nffree;  /* number of free frags */
 127: };
 128: 
 129: /*
 130:  * Super block for a file system.
 131:  */
 132: #define FS_MAGIC    0x011954
 133: struct  fs
 134: {
 135:     struct  fs *fs_link;        /* linked list of file systems */
 136:     struct  fs *fs_rlink;       /*     used for incore super blocks */
 137:     daddr_t fs_sblkno;      /* addr of super-block in filesys */
 138:     daddr_t fs_cblkno;      /* offset of cyl-block in filesys */
 139:     daddr_t fs_iblkno;      /* offset of inode-blocks in filesys */
 140:     daddr_t fs_dblkno;      /* offset of first data after cg */
 141:     long    fs_cgoffset;        /* cylinder group offset in cylinder */
 142:     long    fs_cgmask;      /* used to calc mod fs_ntrak */
 143:     time_t  fs_time;            /* last time written */
 144:     long    fs_size;        /* number of blocks in fs */
 145:     long    fs_dsize;       /* number of data blocks in fs */
 146:     long    fs_ncg;         /* number of cylinder groups */
 147:     long    fs_bsize;       /* size of basic blocks in fs */
 148:     long    fs_fsize;       /* size of frag blocks in fs */
 149:     long    fs_frag;        /* number of frags in a block in fs */
 150: /* these are configuration parameters */
 151:     long    fs_minfree;     /* minimum percentage of free blocks */
 152:     long    fs_rotdelay;        /* num of ms for optimal next block */
 153:     long    fs_rps;         /* disk revolutions per second */
 154: /* these fields can be computed from the others */
 155:     long    fs_bmask;       /* ``blkoff'' calc of blk offsets */
 156:     long    fs_fmask;       /* ``fragoff'' calc of frag offsets */
 157:     long    fs_bshift;      /* ``lblkno'' calc of logical blkno */
 158:     long    fs_fshift;      /* ``numfrags'' calc number of frags */
 159: /* these are configuration parameters */
 160:     long    fs_maxcontig;       /* max number of contiguous blks */
 161:     long    fs_maxbpg;      /* max number of blks per cyl group */
 162: /* these fields can be computed from the others */
 163:     long    fs_fragshift;       /* block to frag shift */
 164:     long    fs_fsbtodb;     /* fsbtodb and dbtofsb shift constant */
 165:     long    fs_sbsize;      /* actual size of super block */
 166:     long    fs_csmask;      /* csum block offset */
 167:     long    fs_csshift;     /* csum block number */
 168:     long    fs_nindir;      /* value of NINDIR */
 169:     long    fs_inopb;       /* value of INOPB */
 170:     long    fs_nspf;        /* value of NSPF */
 171:     long    fs_optim;       /* optimization preference, see below */
 172:     long    fs_sparecon[5];     /* reserved for future constants */
 173: /* sizes determined by number of cylinder groups and their sizes */
 174:     daddr_t fs_csaddr;      /* blk addr of cyl grp summary area */
 175:     long    fs_cssize;      /* size of cyl grp summary area */
 176:     long    fs_cgsize;      /* cylinder group size */
 177: /* these fields should be derived from the hardware */
 178:     long    fs_ntrak;       /* tracks per cylinder */
 179:     long    fs_nsect;       /* sectors per track */
 180:     long    fs_spc;         /* sectors per cylinder */
 181: /* this comes from the disk driver partitioning */
 182:     long    fs_ncyl;        /* cylinders in file system */
 183: /* these fields can be computed from the others */
 184:     long    fs_cpg;         /* cylinders per group */
 185:     long    fs_ipg;         /* inodes per group */
 186:     long    fs_fpg;         /* blocks per group * fs_frag */
 187: /* this data must be re-computed after crashes */
 188:     struct  csum fs_cstotal;    /* cylinder summary information */
 189: /* these fields are cleared at mount time */
 190:     char    fs_fmod;            /* super block modified flag */
 191:     char    fs_clean;           /* file system is clean flag */
 192:     char    fs_ronly;           /* mounted read-only flag */
 193:     char    fs_flags;           /* currently unused flag */
 194:     char    fs_fsmnt[MAXMNTLEN];    /* name mounted on */
 195: /* these fields retain the current block allocation info */
 196:     long    fs_cgrotor;     /* last cg searched */
 197:     struct  csum *fs_csp[MAXCSBUFS];/* list of fs_cs info buffers */
 198:     long    fs_cpc;         /* cyl per cycle in postbl */
 199:     short   fs_postbl[MAXCPG][NRPOS];/* head of blocks for each rotation */
 200:     long    fs_magic;       /* magic number */
 201:     u_char  fs_rotbl[1];        /* list of blocks for each rotation */
 202: /* actually longer */
 203: };
 204: /*
 205:  * Preference for optimization.
 206:  */
 207: #define FS_OPTTIME  0   /* minimize allocation time */
 208: #define FS_OPTSPACE 1   /* minimize disk fragmentation */
 209: 
 210: /*
 211:  * Convert cylinder group to base address of its global summary info.
 212:  *
 213:  * N.B. This macro assumes that sizeof(struct csum) is a power of two.
 214:  */
 215: #define fs_cs(fs, indx) \
 216:     fs_csp[(indx) >> (fs)->fs_csshift][(indx) & ~(fs)->fs_csmask]
 217: 
 218: /*
 219:  * MAXBPC bounds the size of the rotational layout tables and
 220:  * is limited by the fact that the super block is of size SBSIZE.
 221:  * The size of these tables is INVERSELY proportional to the block
 222:  * size of the file system. It is aggravated by sector sizes that
 223:  * are not powers of two, as this increases the number of cylinders
 224:  * included before the rotational pattern repeats (fs_cpc).
 225:  * Its size is derived from the number of bytes remaining in (struct fs)
 226:  */
 227: #define MAXBPC  (SBSIZE - sizeof (struct fs))
 228: 
 229: /*
 230:  * Cylinder group block for a file system.
 231:  */
 232: #define CG_MAGIC    0x090255
 233: struct  cg {
 234:     struct  cg *cg_link;        /* linked list of cyl groups */
 235:     struct  cg *cg_rlink;       /*     used for incore cyl groups */
 236:     time_t  cg_time;        /* time last written */
 237:     long    cg_cgx;         /* we are the cgx'th cylinder group */
 238:     short   cg_ncyl;        /* number of cyl's this cg */
 239:     short   cg_niblk;       /* number of inode blocks this cg */
 240:     long    cg_ndblk;       /* number of data blocks this cg */
 241:     struct  csum cg_cs;     /* cylinder summary information */
 242:     long    cg_rotor;       /* position of last used block */
 243:     long    cg_frotor;      /* position of last used frag */
 244:     long    cg_irotor;      /* position of last used inode */
 245:     long    cg_frsum[MAXFRAG];  /* counts of available frags */
 246:     long    cg_btot[MAXCPG];    /* block totals per cylinder */
 247:     short   cg_b[MAXCPG][NRPOS];    /* positions of free blocks */
 248:     char    cg_iused[MAXIPG/NBBY];  /* used inode map */
 249:     long    cg_magic;       /* magic number */
 250:     u_char  cg_free[1];     /* free block map */
 251: /* actually longer */
 252: };
 253: 
 254: /*
 255:  * MAXBPG bounds the number of blocks of data per cylinder group,
 256:  * and is limited by the fact that cylinder groups are at most one block.
 257:  * Its size is derived from the size of blocks and the (struct cg) size,
 258:  * by the number of remaining bits.
 259:  */
 260: #define MAXBPG(fs) \
 261:     (fragstoblks((fs), (NBBY * ((fs)->fs_bsize - (sizeof (struct cg))))))
 262: 
 263: /*
 264:  * Turn file system block numbers into disk block addresses.
 265:  * This maps file system blocks to device size blocks.
 266:  */
 267: #define fsbtodb(fs, b)  ((b) << (fs)->fs_fsbtodb)
 268: #define dbtofsb(fs, b)  ((b) >> (fs)->fs_fsbtodb)
 269: 
 270: /*
 271:  * Cylinder group macros to locate things in cylinder groups.
 272:  * They calc file system addresses of cylinder group data structures.
 273:  */
 274: #define cgbase(fs, c)   ((daddr_t)((fs)->fs_fpg * (c)))
 275: #define cgstart(fs, c) \
 276:     (cgbase(fs, c) + (fs)->fs_cgoffset * ((c) & ~((fs)->fs_cgmask)))
 277: #define cgsblock(fs, c) (cgstart(fs, c) + (fs)->fs_sblkno)  /* super blk */
 278: #define cgtod(fs, c)    (cgstart(fs, c) + (fs)->fs_cblkno)  /* cg block */
 279: #define cgimin(fs, c)   (cgstart(fs, c) + (fs)->fs_iblkno)  /* inode blk */
 280: #define cgdmin(fs, c)   (cgstart(fs, c) + (fs)->fs_dblkno)  /* 1st data */
 281: 
 282: /*
 283:  * Macros for handling inode numbers:
 284:  *     inode number to file system block offset.
 285:  *     inode number to cylinder group number.
 286:  *     inode number to file system block address.
 287:  */
 288: #define itoo(fs, x) ((x) % INOPB(fs))
 289: #define itog(fs, x) ((x) / (fs)->fs_ipg)
 290: #define itod(fs, x) \
 291:     ((daddr_t)(cgimin(fs, itog(fs, x)) + \
 292:     (blkstofrags((fs), (((x) % (fs)->fs_ipg) / INOPB(fs))))))
 293: 
 294: /*
 295:  * Give cylinder group number for a file system block.
 296:  * Give cylinder group block number for a file system block.
 297:  */
 298: #define dtog(fs, d) ((d) / (fs)->fs_fpg)
 299: #define dtogd(fs, d)    ((d) % (fs)->fs_fpg)
 300: 
 301: /*
 302:  * Extract the bits for a block from a map.
 303:  * Compute the cylinder and rotational position of a cyl block addr.
 304:  */
 305: #define blkmap(fs, map, loc) \
 306:     (((map)[(loc) / NBBY] >> ((loc) % NBBY)) & (0xff >> (NBBY - (fs)->fs_frag)))
 307: #define cbtocylno(fs, bno) \
 308:     ((bno) * NSPF(fs) / (fs)->fs_spc)
 309: #define cbtorpos(fs, bno) \
 310:     ((bno) * NSPF(fs) % (fs)->fs_spc % (fs)->fs_nsect * NRPOS / (fs)->fs_nsect)
 311: 
 312: /*
 313:  * The following macros optimize certain frequently calculated
 314:  * quantities by using shifts and masks in place of divisions
 315:  * modulos and multiplications.
 316:  */
 317: #define blkoff(fs, loc)     /* calculates (loc % fs->fs_bsize) */ \
 318:     ((loc) & ~(fs)->fs_bmask)
 319: #define fragoff(fs, loc)    /* calculates (loc % fs->fs_fsize) */ \
 320:     ((loc) & ~(fs)->fs_fmask)
 321: #define lblkno(fs, loc)     /* calculates (loc / fs->fs_bsize) */ \
 322:     ((loc) >> (fs)->fs_bshift)
 323: #define numfrags(fs, loc)   /* calculates (loc / fs->fs_fsize) */ \
 324:     ((loc) >> (fs)->fs_fshift)
 325: #define blkroundup(fs, size)    /* calculates roundup(size, fs->fs_bsize) */ \
 326:     (((size) + (fs)->fs_bsize - 1) & (fs)->fs_bmask)
 327: #define fragroundup(fs, size)   /* calculates roundup(size, fs->fs_fsize) */ \
 328:     (((size) + (fs)->fs_fsize - 1) & (fs)->fs_fmask)
 329: #define fragstoblks(fs, frags)  /* calculates (frags / fs->fs_frag) */ \
 330:     ((frags) >> (fs)->fs_fragshift)
 331: #define blkstofrags(fs, blks)   /* calculates (blks * fs->fs_frag) */ \
 332:     ((blks) << (fs)->fs_fragshift)
 333: #define fragnum(fs, fsb)    /* calculates (fsb % fs->fs_frag) */ \
 334:     ((fsb) & ((fs)->fs_frag - 1))
 335: #define blknum(fs, fsb)     /* calculates rounddown(fsb, fs->fs_frag) */ \
 336:     ((fsb) &~ ((fs)->fs_frag - 1))
 337: 
 338: /*
 339:  * Determine the number of available frags given a
 340:  * percentage to hold in reserve
 341:  */
 342: #define freespace(fs, percentreserved) \
 343:     (blkstofrags((fs), (fs)->fs_cstotal.cs_nbfree) + \
 344:     (fs)->fs_cstotal.cs_nffree - ((fs)->fs_dsize * (percentreserved) / 100))
 345: 
 346: /*
 347:  * Determining the size of a file block in the file system.
 348:  */
 349: #define blksize(fs, ip, lbn) \
 350:     (((lbn) >= NDADDR || (ip)->i_size >= ((lbn) + 1) << (fs)->fs_bshift) \
 351:         ? (fs)->fs_bsize \
 352:         : (fragroundup(fs, blkoff(fs, (ip)->i_size))))
 353: #define dblksize(fs, dip, lbn) \
 354:     (((lbn) >= NDADDR || (dip)->di_size >= ((lbn) + 1) << (fs)->fs_bshift) \
 355:         ? (fs)->fs_bsize \
 356:         : (fragroundup(fs, blkoff(fs, (dip)->di_size))))
 357: 
 358: /*
 359:  * Number of disk sectors per block; assumes DEV_BSIZE byte sector size.
 360:  */
 361: #define NSPB(fs)    ((fs)->fs_nspf << (fs)->fs_fragshift)
 362: #define NSPF(fs)    ((fs)->fs_nspf)
 363: 
 364: /*
 365:  * INOPB is the number of inodes in a secondary storage block.
 366:  */
 367: #define INOPB(fs)   ((fs)->fs_inopb)
 368: #define INOPF(fs)   ((fs)->fs_inopb >> (fs)->fs_fragshift)
 369: 
 370: /*
 371:  * NINDIR is the number of indirects in a file system block.
 372:  */
 373: #define NINDIR(fs)  ((fs)->fs_nindir)
 374: 
 375: #ifdef KERNEL
 376: struct  fs *getfs();
 377: struct  fs *mountfs();
 378: #endif

Defined struct's

cg defined in line 233; used 18 times
csum defined in line 122; used 8 times
fs defined in line 133; used 94 times

Defined macros

BBLOCK defined in line 34; used 1 times
  • in line 35
BBSIZE defined in line 32; used 4 times
CG_MAGIC defined in line 232; used 5 times
FS_MAGIC defined in line 132; used 2 times
FS_OPTSPACE defined in line 208; used 1 times
FS_OPTTIME defined in line 207; used 1 times
INOPB defined in line 367; used 2 times
INOPF defined in line 368; never used
LOSTFOUNDINO defined in line 65; never used
MAXBPC defined in line 227; used 1 times
MAXBPG defined in line 260; never used
MAXCPG defined in line 100; used 3 times
MAXCSBUFS defined in line 111; used 1 times
MAXIPG defined in line 85; used 1 times
MAXMNTLEN defined in line 110; used 1 times
MINBSIZE defined in line 99; never used
NINDIR defined in line 373; used 13 times
NRPOS defined in line 76; used 5 times
NSPB defined in line 361; used 1 times
NSPF defined in line 362; used 4 times
SBLOCK defined in line 35; used 3 times
SBSIZE defined in line 33; used 3 times
blkmap defined in line 305; used 3 times
blknum defined in line 335; used 1 times
blkroundup defined in line 325; never used
blkstofrags defined in line 331; used 4 times
cbtocylno defined in line 307; used 4 times
cbtorpos defined in line 309; used 4 times
cgbase defined in line 274; used 1 times
cgdmin defined in line 280; never used
cgimin defined in line 279; used 1 times
cgsblock defined in line 277; never used
cgstart defined in line 275; used 4 times
cgtod defined in line 278; used 5 times
dblksize defined in line 353; never used
dbtofsb defined in line 268; used 4 times
dtog defined in line 298; used 4 times
dtogd defined in line 299; used 5 times
fragnum defined in line 333; used 3 times
fragoff defined in line 319; used 4 times
fragroundup defined in line 327; used 5 times
fragstoblks defined in line 329; used 7 times
freespace defined in line 342; used 4 times
fs_cs defined in line 215; used 20 times
itod defined in line 290; used 3 times
itog defined in line 289; used 6 times
itoo defined in line 288; used 3 times
numfrags defined in line 323; used 9 times

Usage of this include

fs.h used 55 times
Last modified: 1986-06-05
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