LS(1)                                                                    LS(1)

       ls - list contents of directory

       ls [ -acdfgilqrstu1ACLFR ] name ...

       For  each  directory  argument, ls lists the contents of the directory;
       for each file argument, ls repeats its name and any  other  information
       requested.   By  default, the output is sorted alphabetically.  When no
       argument is given, the current directory is listed.  When several argu‐
       ments are given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but file
       arguments are processed before directories and their contents.

       There are a large number of options:

       -l     List in long format, giving mode, number of links,  owner,  size
              in  bytes,  and  time  of last modification for each file.  (See
              below.)  If the file is a  special  file  the  size  field  will
              instead contain the major and minor device numbers.  If the file
              is a symbolic link the pathname of the linked-to file is printed
              preceded by ‘‘->’’.

       -g     Include the group ownership of the file in a long output.

       -t     Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name.

       -a     List  all  entries; in the absence of this option, entries whose
              names begin with a period (.)  are not listed.

       -s     Give size in kilobytes of each file.

       -d     If argument is a directory, list only its name; often used  with
              -l to get the status of a directory.

       -L     If  argument  is a symbolic link, list the file or directory the
              link references rather than the link itself.

       -r     Reverse the order of sort to get reverse  alphabetic  or  oldest
              first as appropriate.

       -u     Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting
              (with the -t option) and/or printing (with the -l option).

       -c     Use time of file creation for sorting or printing.

       -i     For each file, print the i-number in the  first  column  of  the

       -f     Force  each  argument  to be interpreted as a directory and list
              the name found in each slot.  This option turns off -l, -t,  -s,
              and -r, and turns on -a; the order is the order in which entries
              appear in the directory.

       -F     cause directories to be marked with a trailing ‘/’, sockets with
              a  trailing  ‘=’,  symbolic  links with a trailing ‘@’, and exe‐
              cutable files with a trailing ‘*’.

       -R     recursively list subdirectories encountered.

       -1     force one entry per line output format; this is the default when
              output is not to a terminal.

       -C     force multi-column output; this is the default when output is to
              a terminal.

       -q     force printing of non-graphic characters in file  names  as  the
              character ‘?’; this is the default when output is to a terminal.

       The mode printed under the -l option contains 11 characters  which  are
       interpreted as follows: the first character is

       d  if the entry is a directory;
       b  if the entry is a block-type special file;
       c  if the entry is a character-type special file;
       l  if the entry is a symbolic link;
       s  if the entry is a socket, or
       -  if the entry is a plain file.

       The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three bits each.
       The first set refers to owner permissions; the next refers  to  permis‐
       sions  to  others  in  the same user-group; and the last to all others.
       Within each set the three characters indicate  permission  respectively
       to  read,  to write, or to execute the file as a program.  For a direc‐
       tory, ‘execute’ permission is interpreted to mean permission to  search
       the directory.  The permissions are indicated as follows:

       r  if the file is readable;
       w  if the file is writable;
       x  if the file is executable;
       -  if the indicated permission is not granted.

       The  group-execute  permission  character is given as s if the file has
       the set-group-id bit set; likewise the user-execute permission  charac‐
       ter is given as s if the file has the set-user-id bit set.

       The  last  character of the mode (normally ‘x’ or ‘-’) is t if the 1000
       bit of the mode is on.  See chmod(1) for the meaning of this mode.

       When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of
       blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.

       /etc/passwd to get user id’s for ‘ls -l’.
       /etc/group to get group id’s for ‘ls -g’.

       Newline and tab are considered printing characters in file names.

       The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.

       The  option  setting based on whether the output is a teletype is unde‐
       sirable as ‘‘ls -s’’ is much different than  ‘‘ls -s | lpr’’.   On  the
       other  hand,  not doing this setting would make old shell scripts which
       used ls almost certain losers.

3rd Berkeley Distribution        May 12, 1986                            LS(1)
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