SED(1)		    UNIX Programmer's Manual		   SED(1)


NAME
     sed - stream editor

SYNOPSIS
     sed [ -n ] [ -e script ] [ -f sfile ] [ file ] ...

DESCRIPTION
     Sed copies the named files (standard input default) to the
     standard output, edited according to a script of commands.
     The -f option causes the script to be taken from file sfile;
     these options accumulate.	If there is just one -e option
     and no -f's, the flag -e may be omitted.  The -n option
     suppresses the default output.

     A script consists of editing commands, one per line, of the
     following form:

	  [address [, address] ] function [arguments]

     In normal operation sed cyclically copies a line of input
     into a pattern space (unless there is something left after a
     `D' command), applies in sequence all commands whose
     addresses select that pattern space, and at the end of the
     script copies the pattern space to the standard output
     (except under -n) and deletes the pattern space.

     An address is either a decimal number that counts input
     lines cumulatively across files, a `$' that addresses the
     last line of input, or a context address, `/regular expres-
     sion/', in the style of ed(1) modified thus:

	  The escape sequence `\n' matches a newline embedded in
	  the pattern space.

     A command line with no addresses selects every pattern
     space.

     A command line with one address selects each pattern space
     that matches the address.

     A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive
     range from the first pattern space that matches the first
     address through the next pattern space that matches the
     second.  (If the second address is a number less than or
     equal to the line number first selected, only one line is
     selected.) Thereafter the process is repeated, looking again
     for the first address.

     Editing commands can be applied only to non-selected pattern
     spaces by use of the negation function `!' (below).


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SED(1)		    UNIX Programmer's Manual		   SED(1)


     In the following list of functions the maximum number of
     permissible addresses for each function is indicated in
     parentheses.

     An argument denoted text consists of one or more lines, all
     but the last of which end with `\' to hide the newline.
     Backslashes in text are treated like backslashes in the
     replacement string of an `s' command, and may be used to
     protect initial blanks and tabs against the stripping that
     is done on every script line.

     An argument denoted rfile or wfile must terminate the com-
     mand line and must be preceded by exactly one blank.  Each
     wfile is created before processing begins.  There can be at
     most 10 distinct wfile arguments.

     (1)a\
     text
	  Append.  Place text on the output before reading the
	  next input line.

     (2)b label
	  Branch to the `:' command bearing the label.	If label
	  is empty, branch to the end of the script.

     (2)c\
     text
	  Change.  Delete the pattern space.  With 0 or 1 address
	  or at the end of a 2-address range, place text on the
	  output.  Start the next cycle.

     (2)d Delete the pattern space.  Start the next cycle.

     (2)D Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through
	  the first newline.  Start the next cycle.

     (2)g Replace the contents of the pattern space by the con-
	  tents of the hold space.

     (2)G Append the contents of the hold space to the pattern
	  space.

     (2)h Replace the contents of the hold space by the contents
	  of the pattern space.

     (2)H Append the contents of the pattern space to the hold
	  space.

     (1)i\
     text
	  Insert.  Place text on the standard output.


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SED(1)		    UNIX Programmer's Manual		   SED(1)


     (2)n Copy the pattern space to the standard output.  Replace
	  the pattern space with the next line of input.

     (2)N Append the next line of input to the pattern space with
	  an embedded newline.	(The current line number
	  changes.)

     (2)p Print.  Copy the pattern space to the standard output.

     (2)P Copy the initial segment of the pattern space through
	  the first newline to the standard output.

     (1)q Quit.  Branch to the end of the script.  Do not start a
	  new cycle.

     (2)r rfile
	  Read the contents of rfile.  Place them on the output
	  before reading the next input line.

     (2)s/regular expression/replacement/flags
	  Substitute the replacement string for instances of the
	  regular expression in the pattern space.  Any character
	  may be used instead of `/'.  For a fuller description
	  see ed(1).  Flags is zero or more of

	  g    Global.	Substitute for all nonoverlapping
	       instances of the regular expression rather than
	       just the first one.

	  p    Print the pattern space if a replacement was made.

	  w wfile
	       Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile if a
	       replacement was made.

     (2)t label
	  Test.  Branch to the `:' command bearing the label if
	  any substitutions have been made since the most recent
	  reading of an input line or execution of a `t'.  If
	  label is empty, branch to the end of the script.

     (2)w wfile
	  Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile.

     (2)x Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold spaces.

     (2)y/string1/string2/
	  Transform.  Replace all occurrences of characters in
	  string1 with the corresponding character in string2.
	  The lengths of string1 and string2 must be equal.

     (2)! function


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SED(1)		    UNIX Programmer's Manual		   SED(1)


	  Don't.  Apply the function (or group, if function is
	  `{') only to lines not selected by the address(es).

     (0): label
	  This command does nothing; it bears a label for `b' and
	  `t' commands to branch to.

     (1)= Place the current line number on the standard output as
	  a line.

     (2){ Execute the following commands through a matching `}'
	  only when the pattern space is selected.

     (0)  An empty command is ignored.

SEE ALSO
     ed(1), grep(1), awk(1), lex(1)


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